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Samuel de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain

   In the spring of 1604, while looking for a suitable place for settlement, Samuel de Champlain landed at Cape Fourchu (Yarmouth).   He described this port as a good one for vessels at its entrance, but at its head it dried up almost completely at low tide.  There Champlain and his crew enjoyed excellent cod fishing.

   From that point they set sail northward looking for another harbor.   Along the way he described seeing a number of coves with soil that seemed suitable for cultivation.   He found the coast very clear, without islands, rocks or shoals, and in his opinion it was quite safe for ships.

   Not far offshore they visited an island called Long Island which has a passage into the great French Bay (later named Bay of Fundy).   He found the island to be covered in great numbers of pine and birch trees, and the shore to be bordered with many dangerous rocks.   He decided there were no suitable places for vessels except for a few little shelters at the end of the island and three or four rocky islets where Natives would capture seals.   He wrote of the great tides, especially at Petit Passage, which he felt was a very dangerous place for ships.

   From Long Island he sailed north-east and found a cove (now Mink Cove) where ships could anchor safely.  He found the bottom to be only mud and the shore was completely bordered by very high rocks.  There was also a very good silver mine that turned out to be galena, (an ore made of lead, often mistaken for silver ) which is of little value.

   Further up the coast they found a river named Du Boulay (now Little River), where the tide ran quite far up onto the land.  Du Boulay was a member of Montsí expedition and later became Champlainís brother-in-law.

   As they continued on they found a good harbor for vessels and an iron mine, which was estimated to yield fifty percent iron for each measure of ore.   This harbor is now called Sandy Cove, and the iron mine is on the St. Maryís Bay shore near Sandy Cove.

   They continued on their journey and came upon anther iron mine, near which was a river bordered by meadow.   The soil he described was red like blood.   This is now called Waterford.

   Samuel de Champlain and his crew continued on their journey and eventually settled at Port Royal around the Annapolis Basin in 1605.

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